The 1936 Olympics (speech) Final

Hello people of the world. I am here to address the matter of the 1936 Olympics which were held in Berlin, Germany, last week. There have been many terrible things that happened during these games that must be changed in the future. I will admit that there were some good things that happened too but first I will address the bad things.
olympic stadium
olympic stadium


Many people are angry because they were not able to compete in the games because of their religion. For instance, Hitler allowed only members of the Aryan race to compete on the German Olympic team. This infuriates me. Why should one be unable to do something because of what they believe in? I feel for the Jewish people of this world because I think that it is unfair to separate them from the other
Hitler
Hitler
athletes. This discrimination does not only affect the athletes but the Jewish religion as a whole. Some of the athletes that were excluded from the Olympic games were Gretel Bergmann, Sam Stoller and Marty Glickman. Gretel Bergmann was not able to participate because of her religion. Even after she had broken the German woman's record for high jump. Sam Stoller and Marty Glickman were excluded from the American team because the U.S Olympic Committee didn't want to embarrass Hitler by having two Jewish athletes.
Hitler's belief of racial supremacy showed outside of the games too. He attempted to clean up the city by taking all of the Gypsies off the city streets and to put them into a camp while the games were going on. There were signs that said "Jews not wanted".

There were also many boycotts before and during the games. Many counties were uncertain about participating in the Olympics because of the practices of Hitler and his party. Czechoslovakia, Sweden, France, and Yugoslavia were all going to boycott but ended up sending athletes after debating the idea. Great Britain was going to boycott but ended up sending a team because of all their political pressures. Even the United States was not sure. They sent Avery Brundage, former U.S athlete and the International Olympic committee president, to Germany to check out how people there were being treated. He came back with a good report that had helped the U.S decide to send a team. Even though many countries debated whether to go, all the powerful nations attended (Germany, Japan, France, Great Britain, and the United States).

At the Olympics, Hitler refused to place the gold medal around Jesse Owens' neck.
This made Americans angry because they took it as Hitler disrespecting their country. Although they did wave to each other as they passed each other, Jesse Owens did not take it as badly as some of the Americans did. He said that Hitler had never really done anything to him and at least he acknowledged him when they passed
 Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
each other.I ask of you Americans that think Hitler was dishonoring us to think again. He was doing what he thought would be best and we should not be mad at him for that. That event did not harm us in anyway and it would be a different story if it did. So I ask of you to forgive him and put that behind us. Although he has done some terrible things to us in the past we must put that behind us. We need to concentrate on what lies ahead and how we can fix some of the problems that have recently occurred in this world.

Now I will address some of the good things that happened during the Olympics. A good thing that happened during
Basketball 36' Olympics
Basketball 36' Olympics
the games was when Jesse Owens set Olympic records in the 200-meter dash and broad jump, he would have set a third in the 100-meter dash but, for an aiding breeze. He also ran the lead off leg in a world-record setting 400-meter relay. This was the first time the Olympics were shown on live television. Another important thing that happened was basketball appeared for the first time in the Olympics. The Americans easily won this event. Basketball was played outdoors and we had a victory over Canada in the rain for the gold medal. It was also the first time handball was played in the Olympics.

It was also the cleanest Olympics in history.Hitler directed that $25 million be spent on the finest facilities, the cleanest streets and the temporary withdrawal of all outward signs of the state-run anti-Jewish campaign. The German crowds adored Owens, and he forged a long-term friendship with German competitor Luz Long.
He offered Owens advice after he almost failed to qualify in the long jump thus he was awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship. The official book of the 1936 Olympics will be present many libraries in the years to come. It contains all the signatures of Gold medal winners. In the games there were 4,463 participants from 49 countries, 4,106 men, 357 woman competing 129 events. The games lasted from August 2 to August 16. The youngest competitor that competed in the Olympics was Inge Sorensen who was 12 years old. She won one bronze medal for Denmark. The oldest competitor was Frank Benson, who was 74 years old and from the United States. Sadly he did not win any medals. The man who had won the most medals was Konrad Fray from Germany with six medals. The county with the most medals was Germany.
The 36' Olympics were held in Berlin, Germany.

Notes: Colton=Pink Info and facts Lauren=Info=Black facts=Bright green



http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=1936+olympics&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&ei=dYDOScaWLdLonQfi6uHHCQ&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&resnum=4&ct=title#

Pierre de Coubertin medal

They built four grandiose stadiums, swimming pools, an outdoor theater, a polo field, and an Olympic Village

http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/summer/1936/


Host City: Berlin, Germany (August 2, 1936 to August 16, 1936)
Opening Ceremony: August 1, 1936 (opened by Chancellor Adolf Hitler)
Lighter of the Olympic Flame: Fritz Schilgen
Taker of the Olympic Oath: Rudolf Ismayr (athlete)
Closing Ceremony: August 16, 1936
Events: 149 in 24 sports
Participants: 4,463 (4,106 men and 357 women) from 49 countries
Youngest Participant:
DEN
DEN
Inge Sørensen (12 years, 22 days)
Oldest Participant:
USA
USA
Frank Benson (74 years, 130 days)
Most Medals (Athlete):
GER
GER
Konrad Frey (6 medals)
Most Medals (Country):
GER
GER
Germany (101 medals)

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/1936_berlin_olympics.htm
1. Jesse Owens won four gold medals; in the 100m, 200m, long jump and 4 x 100m relay. During the Games he broke 11 Olympic records. There were 10 African American members of the American athletics team. Between them they won 7 gold medals, 3 silvers and 3 bronze - more than any national team won in track and field at the Games, except America itself. Hitler refused to place the gold medal around Owens neck.

http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/olympics/
2.
In August 1936, Adolf Hitler's Nazi dictatorship scored a huge propaganda success as host of the Summer Olympics in Berlin. The Games were a brief, two-week interlude in Germany's escalating campaign against its Jewish population and the country's march toward war.

In August 1936, Adolf Hitler's Nazi dictatorship scored a huge propaganda success as host of the Summer Olympics in Berlin. The Games were a brief, two-week interlude in Germany's escalating campaign against its Jewish population and the country's march toward war.
From April 25 to August 24, 2008, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is hosting a special exhibition, The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936, that originally debuted in 1996 in conjunction with the opening of the Atlanta Games and the 60th anniversary of the 1936 Olympics. The exhibition now returns to Washington D.C. for a limited run. The exhibition explores the issues surrounding the 1936 Olympic Games--the Nazis' use of propaganda, the intense boycott debate, the history of the torch run, the historic performance of Jesse Owens, and more.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005680

http://history1900s.about.com/od/fadsfashion/a/olympics1936.htm

The IOC had awarded the Games to Berlin in 1931 with no idea that Adolf Hitler was to take power in Germany two years later. By 1936, the Nazis had control over Germany and had already begun to implement their racist policies. There was international debate as to whether the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany should be boycotted. The United States was extremely close to boycotting but at the last minute decided to accept the invitation to attend.The Nazis saw the event as a way to promote their ideology. They built four grandiose stadiums, swimming pools, an outdoor theater, a polo field, and an Olympic Village that had 150 cottages for the male athletes. Throughout the Games, the Olympic complex was covered in Nazi banners. Leni Riefenstahl, a famous Nazi propaganda filmaker, filmed these Olympic Games and made them into her movie Olympia.These Games were the first ones televised and were the first to use telex transmissions of the results. Also debuting at these Olympics was the torch relay. Jesse Owens, a black athlete from the United States, was the star of the 1936 Olympic Games. Owens, the "Tan Cyclone," brought home four gold medals: the 100-meter dash, the long jump (made an Olympic record), the 200-meter sprint around a turn (made a world record), and part of the team for the 400-meter relay.About 4,000 athletes participated, representing 49 countries.

http://iwitnesstohistory.org/ResidentPages/Wenzel/Wenzel%2036%20olympics.htm
In the summer of 1936, Berlin, Germany, was the "sparkling jewel" of the European continent. The city was of course ready to entertain the world for the XI Olympiad. Bright red banners with black swastikas, flags of 52 competing nations, greenery, and flowers decorated the public buildings and the streets.
The main focus for visitors who came from all parts of the world was Unter Den Linden. This was the beautiful boulevard going through the center of the city all the way to the Bradenberg Gate. The tourists and visitors came to see and applaud the finest athletes in the world.
At the same time, there were uniformed troops marching here and there in the streets. Often officers strolled into hotels or business places. Museums and public buildings would often remain closed so that the visitors could watch a parade of young boys and girls in uniform.
This ominous undercurrent was sensed but ignored in all the festivities. It was a unique moment in history. No other Olympic Games, before, or since, ever took place under such circumstances.



http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/sports2000/moments/138704.html
3.Owens won four gold medals in track and field. He set Olympic records in the 200-meter dash and broad jump, would have set a third in the 100 but for an aiding breeze, and ran the leadoff leg in a world-record setting 400-meter relay.

http://www.infoplease.com/ipsa/A0114524.html
4.In Berlin, dictator Adolf Hitler and his Nazi followers felt sure that the Olympics would be the ideal venue to demonstrate Germany's oft-stated racial superiority. He directed that $25 million be spent on the finest facilities, the cleanest streets and the temporary withdrawal of all outward signs of the state-run anti-Jewish campaign. By the time over 4,000 athletes from 49 countries arrived for the Games, the stage was set.

Basketball also made its debut as a medal sport and was played outdoors. The U.S. men easily won the first gold medal championship game with a 19-8 victory over Canada in the rain.
Germany won only five combined gold medals in men's and women's track and field, but saved face for the “master race” in the overall medal count with an 89-56 margin over the United States.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005680
5. In April 1933, an "Aryans only" policy was instituted in all German athletic organizations. "Non-Aryans"--Jewish or part-Jewish and Romani (Gypsy) athletes--were systematically excluded from German sports facilities and associations. The German Boxing Association expelled amateur champion Erich Seelig in April 1933 because he was Jewish. (Seelig later resumed his boxing career in the United States.) Another Jewish athlete, Daniel Prenn--Germany's top-ranked tennis player--was removed from Germany's Davis Cup Team. Gretel Bergmann, a world-class high jumper, was expelled from her German club in 1933 and from the German Olympic team in 1936.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1936_Summer_Olympics

6.Organization

Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, ie. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL), the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organization of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he also believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak, Jewish, and other undesirables."[4] Many Jews and Gypsies were banned from participating in sporting events.
Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organization of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Diem revealed himself as highly competent and made original innovations, like the Olympic torch relay from Athens, that are still valued.[5]

[edit] Jesse Owens

Jesse Owens's participation in the Olympics was controversial because of his race, at a time when segregation and discrimination against blacks were the norm in much of the United States. However, once in Berlin, Owens was able to freely use public transportation and enter bars and other public facilities without the difficulty he would face as a black man in the United States.
On reports that Hitler had deliberately avoided acknowledging his victories, and had refused to shake his hand, Owens recounted "When I passed the Chancellor he arose, waved his hand at me, and I waved back at him. I think the writers showed bad taste in criticizing the man of the hour in Germany.” He also stated "Hitler didn't snub me—it was FDR who snubbed me. The president didn't even send me a telegram." While Hitler did not personally congratulate Owens, he did not in fact congratulate any athlete (including those competing for Germany) after the first day, in accordance with IOC guidelines that he should maintain Olympic neutrality. Hitler did, however, leave the Olympic Stadium just before another African-American athlete, Cornelius Johnson, was set to receive his medal.[6]
However, Hitler's contempt for Owens and for those races he deemed 'inferior' arose in private, away from maintaining Olympic neutrality. As Albert Speer, Hitler's architect and later war armaments minister recollected in his memoirs Inside the Third Reich:


"Each of the German victories and there were a surprising number of these made him happy, but he was highly annoyed by the series of triumphs by the marvelous colored American runner, Jesse Owens. People whose antecedents came from the jungle were primitive, Hitler said with a shrug; their physiques were stronger than those of civilized whites and hence should be excluded from future games.

German crowds adored Owens, and he forged a long-term friendship with German competitor Luz Long.[8]

[edit] Boycott debate





Prior to and during the Games, there was considerable debate outside Germany over whether the competition should be allowed or discontinued.

[edit] Boycott debate in the United States

The United States considered boycotting the Games, as to participate in the festivity might be considered a sign of support for the Nazi regime and its anti-Semitic policies

Most African-American newspapers supported participation in the Olympics. The Philadelphia Tribune and the Chicago Defender both agreed that black victories would undermine Nazi views of Aryan supremacy and spark renewed African-American pride. American Jewish organizations, meanwhile, largely opposed the Olympics.
The 1936 Summer Olympics ultimately boasted the largest number of participating nations of any Olympics to that point. However, some individual athletes, including Jewish Americans Milton Green and Norman Canners, chose to boycott the Games.

[edit] Spanish boycott

The Spanish government led by the newly elected left-wing Popular Front boycotted the Games and organized the People's Olympiad as a parallel event in Barcelona. 6,000 athletes from 22 countries registered for the games. However, the People's Olympiad was aborted due to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War just one day before the event was going to start.

[edit] Highlights

external image 250px-Olympic_Fire_in_Berlin_1936.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.png Olympic fireexternal image 250px-Berlin36-2.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.png Olympic Stadiumexternal image 250px-Olympics_in_Berlin_1936.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngexternal image magnify-clip.png
The games were the first to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over seventy hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station. The Olympic Flame was used for the second time at these games, but this marked the first time it was brought to the Olympic Village by a torch relay, with the starting point in Olympia, Greece.[11] The Republic of China's //Three Principles of the People// was chosen as the best national anthem of the games.
The official book of the 1936 Olympics is present in many libraries[12] containing all the signatures of Golden medals winners[13]
United States Olympic Committee president Avery Brundage became a main supporter of the Games being held in Germany, arguing that "politics has no place in sport", despite having initial doubts.[14]

[edit] Politics and controversy


Gretel Bergmann, despite equaling a national record in the high jump a month before the games, was excluded from the German team because she was Jewish.[17]
American sprinters, Sam Stoller and Marty Glickman, the only two Jews on the U.S. Olympic team were pulled from the 4 x 100 relay team on the day of the competition, leading to speculation that U.S. Olympic committee leader Avery Brundage did not want to add to the embarrassment of Hitler by having two Jews win gold medals[citation needed].
Italy's football team continued their dominance, winning the gold medal in these Olympics between their two consecutive World Cup victories (1934 and 1938). Much like the successes of German athletes, this triumph was claimed by supporters of Benito Mussolini's regime as a vindication of the superiority of the fascist system. Austria won the silver; a controversial win after Hitler called for a rematch of the quarterfinals match to discount Peru's 4-2 win over Austria. The Peruvian national Olympic team refused to play the match again and withdrew from the games. , Peruvian fans ran onto the field and attacked an Austrian player. In the chaos, Peru scored twice and won, 4-2. However, Austria protested and the International Olympic Committee ordered a replay without any spectators. Peru refused and their entire Olympic squad left in protest as did Colombia. [18]

[edit] Sporting innovations

Basketball was added to the Olympic program. In the final game, the United States beat Canada 19-8. The contest was played outdoors on a dirt court in driving rain. Due to the quagmire, the teams could not dribble, thus the score was held to a minimum. Joe Fortenbury was the high scorer for the U.S. with 7 points. Spectators did not have seats, and the people (approximately 1000) in attendance had to stand in the rain.
In the freestyle, swimmers originally dived from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated at the 1936 Olympics.

[edit] Notable wins


Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events. His German competitor Luz Long offered Owens advice after he almost failed to qualify in the long jump and was posthumously awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship. Glenn Edgar Morris, a farm boy from Colorado, won Gold in the Decathlon. Rower Jack Beresford won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal. The U.S. eight-man rowing team from the University of Washington won the gold medal, coming from behind to defeat the Germans and Italians with Adolf Hitler in attendance.
India won the gold medal in the field hockey event once again (they won the gold in all Olympics from 1928-1956), defeating Germany 8-1 in the final. Rie Mastenbroek of the Netherlands won three gold medals and a silver in swimming. Estonia's Kristjan Palusalu won two gold medals in Men's Wrestling, marking the last time Estonia competed as an independent nation in the Olympics until 1992.
The Egyptian Khadr El Touni set a record that lasted for 60 years, until the 1996 Games in Atlanta where Turkey's Naim SuleymanogluRudolf Ismayr and Adolf Wagner would embarrass all other opponents. Hitler was so impressed by his domination in the middleweight class that he ordered a street named after him in Berlin olympic village. Also Egypt won many medals in this Olympics.[12] surpassed the Egyptian to top the list. The 20-year-old Eltouny lifted a total of 387.5 kg crushing two German world champions, Eltouny broke the then Olympic and world records, while the German lifted 352.5 kg. Furthermore, Eltouny had lifted 15 kg more than the heavyweight gold medalist, a feat only Eltouny has accomplished. Eltouny's new world records stood for thirteen years. Fascinated by Eltouny's performance, Adolf Hitler rushed down to greet this human miracle. Prior to the competition, Hitler was said to have been sure that

[edit] Events




Basketball and handball made their debut at the Olympics, both as outdoor sports. Handball would not appear again on the program until 1972.